Preliminary report on the benefits provided by milk proteins:
Beneficial effects in developing infants:
- Infants who receiving formula supplemented with immunoglobulin-concentrate as found in milk had both significantly reduced incidences and episodes of diarrhea .
- Neonates at risk for bacterial infections who were treated with immunoglobulins such as those found in milk had significantly enhanced survival .
- Infants have increased protected from diseases caused by gastroenteric infectious agents such as rotavirus and Escherichia coli as a result of Immunoglobulin A antibodies found in breastmilk which disrupt microbial adherence processes and microbial cell signaling.
- Lactoferrin, an antibacterial protein found in milk, protects newborns against gastrointestinal infections and also plays a role in iron absorption which enhances growth and development.
- In neonates, the milk protein alpha-1-antitrypsin protects the infant from hepatic diseases such as cirrhosis .
- Immunoglobulins found in milk such as IGL strongly assists the host immune system to develop a more effective humoral response during HIV infection to decrease the severity of symptoms .
- The protein lactoferrin inhibits viral activity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) .
- Protease inhibitors in milk reduce the transmission of HIV to infants .
- Lactoperoxidase defends the host with its anti-viral activity and tumoricidal activity .
Gastrointestinal disease protection:
- The protein polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) is important for proper immune responses and when it is deficient in the colon, there is an increase in the severity of Crohn’s disease .
- Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) protects the mucosa of the intestinal tract by neutralizing pathogens .
- The increased abundance of immunoglobulins in the intestinal tract such as IgA and IgM, as found in milk, prevent enteric infections and inhibit intestinal carcinoma growth .
- Increased availability of immunoglobulin antibodies such as IgA and IgM play a significant role in clearing the intestinal parasite Giardia from the gastrointestinal tract .
- Lactoferrin is an antibacterial protein found in milk which significantly reduces the incidence and multiplicity of carcinomas in the large intestine .
- Supplementing the diet with lactoferrin significantly suppressed intestinal polyposis development in the small intestine.
- The protein osteoponin protects mucosal surfaces in the intestine during acute inflammatory colitis by preventing massive destruction of intestinal crypts. The protein also plays an important role in protecting the intestine from pathogens .
Muscoskeletal beneficial effects:
- The protein alpha-1-antitrypsin reduces bone loss in particular when there is increased risk for severe bone loss due to osteoporosis .
- The protein osteopontin is important for proper bone formation and remodeling .
- Immunoglobulins which are a significant component of whey protein counteract muscle breakdown in the elderly .
- Immunoglobulin containing whey protein aids in recovery after resistance exercise training .
Protection against asthma and pulmonary disease:
- The polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) protein defends the host against inflammatory agents during pulmonary inflammation and increased availability of it as found in milk is important to abate symptoms in the host.
- Children who were breastfed milk that had increased concentration of the protein CD14 had the lowest risk for atopic diseases, such as asthma .
- Deficiencies of the protein alpha-1-antitrypsin is associated with increased incidence of airway diseases such as emphysema .
Immune system development:
- Sufficient amounts of immunoglobulins are important to immune system development as deficiencies in the secreted immunoglobulin M (sIgM) leads to decreased T helper activity, increased isotype-specific suppressor T cell activity, as well as defects in intrinsic B cells .
- Deficiencies in the immunoglobulin IgM result in an increased susceptibility to autoimmune diseases and to atherosclerosis. Reduced IgM is associated with systemic lupus erythematosus [22, 23].
- The antimicrobial protein GlyCAM-,1 in addition to its antimicrobial effects, plays in important role in lymphocyte trafficking in mucosal membranes, such as in the intestine, which is crucial for proper functioning of the host immune system .
Anti-pathogenic and anti-microbial effects:
- Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) protein has antimicrobial properties which protects mucosal surfaces from invasion of microbes .
- Mucins such as MUC15 and MUC16 play important roles in protecting epithelial cells from invading microbes, modulating immune responses, adhesion and inflammation. MUC15 contains extracellular protein-bound glycans which serve as ligands for receptors mediating recognition events and influence important properties of proteins related to folding and solubility .
- The protein Cathelicidin has antimicrobial activity which protects monocytes in the body against pathogens such as M tuberculosis .
- Lactoperoxidase defends against microbial infections by both bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects against microorganisms .
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- Brock, J.H., Lactoferrin in human milk: its role in iron absorption and protection against enteric infection in the newborn infant. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 1980. 55(6): p. 417-421.
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- Sajadi, M.M., et al., λ Light Chain Bias Associated With Enhanced Binding and Function of Anti-HIV Env Glycoprotein Antibodies. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2016. 213(1): p. 156-164.
- Harmsen, M.C., et al., Antiviral Effects of Plasma and Milk Proteins: Lactoferrin Shows Potent Activity against Both Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Human Cytomegalovirus Replication In Vitro. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1995. 172(2): p. 380-388.
- Farquhar, C., et al., Salivary Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor Is Associated with Reduced Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 through Breast Milk. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2002. 186(8): p. 1173-1176.
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- Perdigon, G., et al., Immune System Stimulation by Probiotics. Journal of Dairy Science, 1995. 78(7): p. 1597-1606.
- Ankarklev, J., et al., Behind the smile: cell biology and disease mechanisms of Giardia species. Nat Rev Micro, 2010. 8(6): p. 413-422.
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- da Silva, A.P.B., et al., Exacerbated tissue destruction in DSS-induced acute colitis of OPN-null mice is associated with downregulation of TNF-α expression and non-programmed cell death. Journal of Cellular Physiology, 2006. 208(3): p. 629-639.
- Akbar, M.A., et al., Transplantation of Adipose Tissue Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell (ATMSC) Expressing Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Reduces Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Osteoporosis Mice. Human Gene Therapy, 2016.
- Chen, J., et al., Developmental Expression of Osteopontin (OPN) mRNA in Rat Tissues: Evidence for a Role for OPN in Bone Formation and Resorption. Matrix, 1993. 13(2): p. 113-123.
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- Jaffar, Z., et al., Cutting Edge: Lung Mucosal Th17-Mediated Responses Induce Polymeric Ig Receptor Expression by the Airway Epithelium and Elevate Secretory IgA Levels. The Journal of Immunology, 2009. 182(8): p. 4507-4511.
- Rothenbacher, D., et al., Breastfeeding, soluble CD14 concentration in breast milk and risk of atopic dermatitis and asthma in early childhood: birth cohort study. Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 2005. 35(8): p. 1014-1021.
- Louis, A.G. and S. Gupta, Primary Selective IgM Deficiency: An Ignored Immunodeficiency. Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology, 2014. 46(2): p. 104-111.
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- Boes, M., et al., Accelerated development of IgG autoantibodies and autoimmune disease in the absence of secreted IgM. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2000. 97(3): p. 1184-1189.
- Mebius, R.E., et al., Expression of GlyCAM-1, an endothelial ligand for L-selectin, is affected by afferent lymphatic flow. The Journal of Immunology, 1993. 151(12): p. 6769-76.
- Pallesen, L.T., et al., Characterization of Carbohydrate Structures of Bovine MUC15 and Distribution of the Mucin in Bovine Milk. Journal of Dairy Science, 2007. 90(7): p. 3143-3152.
- Liu, P.T., et al., Cutting Edge: Vitamin D-Mediated Human Antimicrobial Activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Is Dependent on the Induction of Cathelicidin. The Journal of Immunology, 2007. 179(4): p. 2060-2063.